Writing an essay (reference point). Types of abstracts
NapiSaniye essay (referencing) - this analytic-synthetic processing of information, which is reduced to the analysis of the original document and find the most important data (the main findings, the evidence, the facts, the provisions of results). As annotation and abstracting should reduce the volume of the original document, butwhile upholding its core semantic content. This is a complex process that requires the use not only of their own mental abilities, but also a certain time. As a rule, the one who takes on abstracting, should be at least partially aware of in the area of ??knowledge, which is associated with the original document.
Fields Execuzovaniya referencing
Referencing is widely used in the bibliography, information, publishing and scientific activities. Here a special place belongs to the specialized bodies of information that are engaged in the preparation and issuance of abstracts and journal collections and express -Information. The library of the DocumentationOptions is reviewed at: preparing abstracts digests, thematic collections, reviews and conclusion Patent Index.
The functions of the abstract:
- Information - Summary provides information about the document, depriving the need to get acquainted with its fulltext in cases where the document reader is of secondary importance;
- Search - used in information retrieval systems (including automated) to search for relevant case information or document;
The classification provides abstractsXia on several grounds:
- membership in a particular branch of knowledge (abstracts humanitarian, social, natural, accurate, technical and others. Branches of science);
- way characteristic of the original document (abstracts, summaries and general reports, whiche series generally transmit all the content of the original document; problem-oriented and specialized reports, which focuses the reader on specific issues or topics of the original document);
- number of sources referencing (monographic essay - the basis ofwhich is only one original document; abstracts fragments which are prepared on a separate part of the original document - it: paragraph, section or subsection; review (Details) group reports, when drawing up that uses multiple or a series of thematically related refereed papers);
- form of presentation (illustrated, table, text or mixed);
- volume or depth of deployment threads (short - the amount of which is limited (no more than 850 characters); extended - with an unlimited amount (depending on the significance, novelty and availability of the original document - abstract maybe 10-15% of the original));
- compiler (author) essay (auto essays that are written by the author of the thesis, monographs or other works; neavtorskie who are employees or abstracts and bibliographic information services);
- summarization level of formalization (eg, intelligent essays, compiled a man based on his intuitive understanding of the value of the information provided in the original document, or formal reports, which are based on formal methods - and Aspect personal essays, essays extracts (excerpts), and others.).
- deposited manuscripts;
- scientific articles (methodical, experimental, descriptive, theoretical, and others.);
- patent documents;
- sections of the books (collections, monographs, papers, etc.). &Nbsp;
Referencing not be
For instructions, information and bibliographic publications, equipment catalogs, classification schemes, price lists, reference books (encyclopedias, reference books, wordsari), standards, thesauri, specifications etc.
The content of the essay
The abstract should be specific, concise, understandable and clear - t. E. Do not need to submit additional information, namely, evidence, descriptions, examples, and reflections. The abstract does notneed to use bulky suggestions complex structures, turns that impede the perception of its content. The abstract should not include data that is reflected in the bibliographic description of the document. Also nedopustitelny arbitrary interpretation of the text and its referent criticisms (except in special cases there should be obviousinaccuracies).
The process of preparing the abstract:
- A preliminary analysis (introductory reading). The study abstracted document should start with the title, introduction, preface, contents, headings, conclusions and summary. The purpose of the inspection analysis has to obtain impressions of the original documentOverall, its structure and problems;
- In-depth analysis (close reading). His goal has detailed "analysis" of the original document, with the exception of minor elements or data, in order to get a clear picture of the object of his work, its properties, advantages and disadvantages, make goalsof the applied methods, main results and conclusions of the authors, the degree of implementation and application data from the source. It is important to note the contradictions and diskusivnist provisions in the document that is reviewed.
Types of abstracts:
What type of essay to choose depends on the product, which is abstracted from the goals and objectives of the procedure summarization.
The structure of the essay depends on its type and the choice of stylistic and linguistic resources. In the process of writing the text of the abstract, etc.oiskhodit search and synthesis of the necessary information, the layout of individual elements to ensure a consistent, concise, precise articulation of the core of the semantic content of the original document. Thus achieving coherence and clarity of presentation of information.