Wahhabism and Wahhabis
In August this year, forced almost the whole world to talk about the Wahhabis - Islamicie for whose information is difficult to find even in the professional directories.
Wahhabism (in Arabic - al-vahha-Biya) is a product of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, who was born in the Arabian village of al-Huayna in 1703 or 1704, and died His death in 1792. The son of qadi, Syariah Court judges, and AbdL-Wahhab in his youth traveled widely, lived in Basra, Baghdad, Esfahan, Kurdistan. He was interested in the various schools of Islam, and seems to get a good theological education.
Around this period in the life of Abd al-Wahhab curls are a number of legends, gossip, more or less plausible stories. EgEP, one of them clearly unfriendly future founder of Wahhabism, still quite young Wahhab met in Basra British spy named Humphrey, who once felt in youth ambition, outstanding ability and thirst for leadership, encouraged him to found a new Tariq - religious movement . And supposedly it was Humphrey led Baxhub attend lectures connoisseurs of theology, historical and religious programs (the so-called ulema). But be that as it may, it is worth paying attention to the fact that Abd al Wahhab took lessons from the Ulema-Hanbali. Hanbal (al-Khanab) - is one of the four schools of thought canonized (ie, theological and legal schools) of Sunni, wherein the negation of any newovvedeny, easy to continually purification of Islam.
The creed which begins to formulate Abd al-Wahhab, hanbalistski influence was very noticeable. The core of the new doctrine preaching becomes absolutely necessary purification of Islam from the accretions and polytheistic idoloshanuvannya and development ideas edinobozhiya (tawhid). Only Allah is the sole source of all that exists, and only he should be worshiped; Muslims away from Islam that defines the principles and began to love the holy natural phenomenon, introducing new rules and customs. We must immediately return to the early, unspotted Islam to get rid of luxury, to destroy everything and resemblesis a polytheistic, preached Abd al-Wahhab. According to the new doctrine, mosques were built without minarets and adorned with ornaments; any name other than the name of Allah, should not be mentioned in the prayers; It is forbidden to smoke tobacco, use insulting words and shave their beards. Particular attention is paid Wahhab and this explains to some extent gaveneyshee development of Wahhabism - the idea of ??jihad against idolaters and Muslims, who retreated from the original precepts of Islam. And he believed that the latter are even more wicked than the Gentiles. By the way, the heathen pre-Islamic days of Islam defined as people of Ignorance, then there are those who are simply ignorant. Even for RAnnego been characterized by extreme Wahhabi fanaticism in matters of faith and practice in the fight against extremism with their opponents.
I can not say that the spread of Wahhabism was an early triumph and trouble-free. But Abd al-Wahhab was supported by the kind of Al-Saud - the emirs of the Arabian city of al-hole. MuhammeDr. Ibn Saud, ruler of the hole, concludes with Wahhab kind of agreement under which the latter becomes a religious leader, leaving the completeness of the secular power in the hands of the governor. Wahhabism became the ideological banner in the fight against Al-Saud for the unification of the Arabian Peninsula under their authority, and later the official ideology of the former State of Saud. This doctrine is the basis of the state ideology of Saudi Arabia so far.
After Arabia, where Wahhabism really strengthened the position at the beginning of the XIX century. This doctrine spread to the North and East Africa, Indonesia, India. Finally, at the end of the century it comes to the Caucasus.
Among the factors that led to « Caucasian success » Wahhabism, one can distinguish at least like that. First of all, it is the financial power of Saudi Arabia - more precisely, the political forces and economic interests of the country, are in favor of the promotion of Wahhabism in Chechnya and Dagestan. The ideas of Abd al-Wahhab came to the North Caucasus together (EUDo not follow) cash payments to the chronically unemployed Highlanders, with the trucks, which gave the emissaries of the heads of large families to transport and sale of fruits and vegetables to Russia. In fact, the purpose of military units that are fighting in the mountains of Dagestan, close to the foreign legionnaires against Russian troops - is « Treasury » people. Tis the head of the family received the funds necessary for the maintenance of their loved ones, in exchange for his son, whom he let in Wahhabi seminary or directly to a military training center.
The second factor - is the need for an ideology that provided the sacred meaning of the struggle against Russia. Wahhabism with his implacableBridges and directivity for jihad is suitable for this purpose perfectly. And, thirdly, it is necessary to point out the simplicity and transparency, underlined neelitarnist Wahhabism. For the North Caucasian peoples, who have long been separated from the intellectual manifestations of Islam, it is of great importance. However, people who have owlsMost recently did not know of any Muslim prayer, hardly willing to distinguish « Jihad Heart & raquo ;, « Jihad language & raquo ;, « Jihad hands » and « jihad of the sword & raquo ;. They are not inclined to perceive the spiritual interpretation of jihad as a struggle with their own sins and imperfections, but is easy to perceive it as an armed struggle with the Nevamolecular weight in the name of Islam.
In Chechnya, one of those who decisively contributed to the spread of Wahhabism became here a native of Jordan, warlord Emir al-Khattab. After the end of the Russian-Chechen war, he created in the southeast of Chechnya Education Center; « & raquo ;, Caucasus where are the military and religioznuyu training Chechens and Dagestani peoples. But relations between the government of Aslan Maskhadov and Wahhabis getting worse. President of the Republic of Ichkeria was objectively an enemy of the Wahhabis, who dream of turning Chechnya into an orthodox Muslim state. They tried to do it during the life of J.Ohara Dudaev, but the former Soviet general, is married to a Russian, not openly sympathetic to the idea of ??introducing Sharia rule in the country. To this end, the President of the Chechen Wahhabis concessions would mean a radical narrowing of its power and becoming a decorative figure. So last year's presidential troops tried to storm a military baseWahhabis in Urus-Martan, and the National Security Service of the Republic of Ichkeria deported about 200 people, among whom were the Wahhabi missionaries. In the summer of 1998 against the Wahhabis it was discovered the real military action.
It is obvious to a certain extent contributed to the acceleration of the implementation of them with limePlan of Distribution of jihad in the entire North Caucasus and transfer the center of gravity in the Buynaksk district of Dagestan. Concerns about religious extremism and propaganda of exclusivity « individual organizations and individuals » (which were calculated easily Wahhabis) August 19, 1998 The heads of Muslim spiritual directoratesNorth Caucasus. August 21 one of them, the mufti of Dagestan, Said Mohammed Haji Abubakarov, one of the fighters against extremism, was killed. Public opinion is clearly linked to the murder of performances Wahhabis Buynaksk district.
Media representing the August events in Dagestan, a suddenie here the invasion of militants from Chechnya, or incompetent, or deliberately not telling the truth. The fact that a few years ago in the villages and Karamahi Chabanmakhi, which are often mentioned in the reports of hot, was declared an Islamic republic. The men of the two villages and the neighboring hamlet chadar have long profess Wahhabism and floorand « republic » nice funded regional center of Wahhabism in Baku, headed by Kuwaiti Abi Owari, and has said al-Khattab. Khattab married Sam darginku with Karamahi and thus become related with a considerable part of the village. The area around the « the Islamic Republic » strengthened more than one year, no disintegrationsoryazheny Makhachkala is not performed and Russian laws are not acted.
In March, the Islamic Jamaat of Dagestan - the governing body of the Wahhabi community, which is about a year in Chechnya, Dagestan youth announced a call in the army. The head of the Jamaat - 53-year-old Muhammad Bagauddin Dagestan in one of theher « calls for repentance » announced that the « we, the Islamic Jamaat, gathered around the Quran, Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger, is only performed the duty entrusted to us to establish the will of God on earth ... to fulfill their duty before God, we are not going to stop at nothing and no prior Who, the path should lead us to the nis depleted or until the end of the glorious death ».
It is unlikely that military action against the Wahhabis in the mountains of Chechen-Dagestani border zone will be able to curb them. Wahhabism is spreading across the North Caucasus. For example, observers argue that the situation in the east of the Stavropol Territory, where they live Nogai, thish is very similar to Dagestan several years ago. There gradually concentrated Wahhabi graduates of military camps, about fifty nogaytsev- Wahhabis took part in the raid Basayev and Al Khattab on Dagestan. Wahhabis seized control of several major mosques in places of compact residence of the Nogai. With the money the regional tsentrov Wahhabism built mosque in Makhachkala, Khasavyurt, Maikop, Buynaksk, in Astrakhan. By the way, Wahhabi community of Astrakhan is exceptionally aggressive preaching jihad even against their co-religionists. Its head - Imam Ayub willingly accepts to him those who have nowhere to go, spreading his views in the most impoverished villages. Chapteravnym ally of Wahhabism are poverty, disorder, unemployment, and lack of alternative religious education.
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