Great place in the discoveries of physics sphere is given to Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov. He was very versatile scholar, who devoted his life to understanding the world and laid the foundation for many of knowledge. Lomonosov succeeded to penetrate so deeply into the essence of surrounding us phenomena, that sometimes becomes unclear how the people could not understand this up to him. Lomonosov throughout his life has opened many inventions, since he was closely involved in instrument engineering and optics. So, in May 26, 1761 Lomonosov made a great discovery - while he watched, how Venus passed across the solar disk, he found that it has an atmosphere. This discovery is very important for calculating distance from Earth to the Sun. This effect, he presented for many scientists for review, scientists saw it, but could not explain. Only Lomonosov explained that this was due to the refraction of sunlight. Exactly this phenomenon of dispersion of light was given the name of the scientist.
Optical inventions of Lomonosov
This discovery affected the further activities of the scientist. He began to work on various optical devices, and then opened a school of scientific optics. Among his inventions may be noted Catoptrics-dioptre incendiary system, which affected the further discoveries. Also, special attention should be paid to the so-called device for thickening the light or "night telescope pipe", which was necessary to see in the sea different distant objects at night. He wrote an article entitled "The physical problem of night telescope pipe", which he presented to the Academic Assembly. Many of the scientists who attended the presentation of the project simply did not believe him, and some, such as the scientist Epinus tried throughout his life to show the impracticality of this invention. Lomonosov has also thought up and invented optical botoskop, whereby it was possible to look at the depth, that is to see much easier and deeper underwater world, so-called "gorizontoskop", which allows to inspect the area horizontally. In addition to his own inventions, he also improved the existing ones. So he started to practice in improvement of the telescope, that had been proposed by such scientists, as Newton and Gregory. His version differed in that, this invention had only one concave glass, which was located at an angle of 4 ° to the axis of the telescope. Thus, this mirror reflects the rays and they fell into the eyepiece, located on the side. This allows to increase the flow of light. Sample of the telescope was constructed in 1762, after that, Lomonosov has demonstrated it on the meeting of the Academy of Sciences.
Inventions of Lomonosov in aeronautics
Mikhail Lomonosov left his mark in the development of aeronautics. Long before the acknowledged inventions, similar to the helicopter, scientist constructed such apparatus in Russia. Leonardo da Vinci, who was also involved in this area, back in 1475, wrote in his writings and notes, that it is possible to make such a apparatus, but Lomonosov did not know about these works. Mikhail Lomonosov once drew attention to the fact that the free air is circulated in the mines in direct proportion to the outside temperature, so in his invented helicopter - blades strongly resembled the so-called blade carminative machines, which was actively used in the mines. Helicopter, invented by scientist was constructed in 1754 and immediately been tested. Thus, the scientist became the first man who tried to use the Archimedes screw in aeronautics. Mikhail Lomonosov was able to penetrate deeper and further in the mysteries of natural sciences. Thus, he was able to prove the law of conservation of mass substances, to develop many possible physical and meteorological instruments, such as a device for measuring the viscosity, for determining the hardness, gas barometer and many others. He has held a prominent place in the study of electricity, in the study of optical phenomena, mineralogy, geophysics, astronomy. It should be noted that the discoveries and scientific research of the scientist in the literal sense of this word turned the world.
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