The development of the French language in XVII - XVIII centuries
In 1631 there was the first ezhednevnaya printed newspaper La Gazette de France in French. In 1665, the first issue of the oldest European literary and scientific publication Journal des scavans (« Journal of scientists »).
The French Academy of
In 1635, at the initiative of Cardinal Richelieu, sozdli French Academy, callingsnnuyu up dictionaries and care about the spelling of the French language. In the first charter of the newly formed institutions recorded: « The main function of the academy - to work more carefully as possible and harder to give our speech are certain rules to make it clear, expressive and able to interpret the art and science & raquo ;. In addition, its task bylo establishment rhetoric, poetics, grammar and vocabulary. Interestingly, the rhetoric and poetics has not been written to the grammar, hands before reached only after three centuries -in 1932-1934 years. The first edition of the dictionary of the French language was published in 1694. The process of preparation of each edition extends over decades. Since 1986, we are working on the ninthth edition of the dictionary, the last of which is scheduled to see the light in 2017.
« French-Latin Dictionary » Robert Etienne
It should be noted that the influence of the French Academy on the use of speech has never been a monopoly, and its dictionary - first. Some believe the first dictionary thatwas issued a half-century before him, in 1539 - « French-Latin Dictionary » Robert Etienne, in which French words interpreted Latin. The official historiography palm grammarian and lexicographer gives Cesar Pierre Richelieu. His Dictionnaire francois ... with a very long name was published in 1680 in Geneva. Here it isunlike mobile approach too academic vocabulary, P. Richelieu introduced the so-called « low » vocabulary and spelling simplification surrendered. In the preface to the dictionary, he said: « I made a French dictionary, so it can be useful for educated people who love our language ».
« General Dictionary »(Dictionnaire universel)
The first edition of the dictionary of the French Academy ahead, right-on for four years, another linguist Antoine Fureti?re. As a member of her he expressed great dissatisfaction with the slowness of the creation of academic vocabulary, as well as its lack of scientific, technical and artistic terms. That Is Whystart is own vocabulary and received permission for its publication by King Louis XIV. After A. Fyureter published part of the dictionary, he was expelled from the academics. Full version « General Dictionary » (Dictionnaire universel) came out after his death in 1690 in The Hague, and for some time was distributed in France nodpolno.
The consistent work on the valuation of the language was completed by the middle of XVII century the final delimitation between oral vernacular and literary language aristocratic royal « spill & raquo ;. For the destruction of the walls will take the next generation of French, but not in every modern languagesurvived such a variety of styles and a clear compartmentalization between them, as in French.
Meanwhile, Paris spread his speech influence into new territory. Joining every new province was accompanied by a decree on compulsory use of the French language or in public acts (Bearn 1621) or administrativeivnyh institutions (Flanders 1684, Alsace 1685; 1700god Roussillon, Lorraine in 1748, Corsica in 1768).
In addition, the French language is beginning to take during this period international and diplomatic status. German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in his scientific writings often used the French language, with certainOtori then preference to Latin. Only half of the works he wrote in Latin, one-third - in French.
Here's a history of this beautiful language. And now forward to French language courses: .