Features of education of journalists in Germany
Systemsand the training of journalists in Germany is somewhat different from the Ukrainian. On the one hand, we have a lot in common because in both countries, training in the specialty "journalism" takes place in universities. On the other hand, in Germany there are many other opportunities to get journalism education, the catoryh we do not have.
Commercial journalism school
In particular, we are talking about business journalism schools. They are created with many publishing houses, which provide both theoretical knowledge and practice. In the future, a graduate of a school can get and working IUhundred publishing the owner of the school. However, this method of producing journalism education is primarily aimed at those who have already graduated from another university.
Former Students must pass a difficult path. In contrast to the Ukrainian, German schools have a number of disciplines in the schedule, which examines in detail the functioning ofmedia of the country. For high school students are offered not only the theoretical basis, but it is possible in practice to master the craft of journalism.
For this ideal conditions. In Germany there is a nationwide program to attract students tojournalistic work with the coordinating authority in Aachen. "Young writes" - a page with the same name is a permanent section of many leading publications in Germany. Any school can offer high school students to take part in this project. Children together with teachers develop the concept of a school edition publisheds and submit these ideas for the contest. The best of them have the right to sell. From each region shall be elected for one school. High school students are constantly prepare materials for the newspaper. This experience helps to awaken interest in the press and other students of these schools.
According to sociologists of both countries, children and young people are less likely to read, etc.essu. And only a few write in the editorial. The introduction of such a project in Germany helped to significantly increase the interest of pupils across the country to the media. At the same time it contributed to and awareness of young people about the political, economic and social events. For newspapers is also an opportunity to find new Chitatfirs among young people who may become permanent subscriber in the future.
Some publications also introduced: Additional topics, such as "Youth and the Environment", which also printed the work of students. The newspaper "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" plans another novelty - "Young people and the economy." Now interest schoolboys to economic processes in the country is small enough. New section should contribute to its development.
German experience and Ukraine
There is no doubt that the German experience should find application in Ukraine. Coordinating body could be the Ministry of Education in close hundredseration with journalists' organizations. Since the project "Youth writes" in Germany are also involved foreign schools can not exclude the role and Ukrainian students in the production of foreign publications. For example, the newspaper "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" its pages school classes in France, Poland and Lithuania. As amended by the EUbe striving to attract and Ukrainian youth to cooperate. Perhaps classes of schools with profound study of German interested in this idea. One or two of the best reporters are even invited to the editors in Frankfurt. Among high school graduates who have already worked with the leading publications in the project, many who want to gets journalism education.
Internships, admission to institutions of higher education and the learning process
The German youth who wants to study journalism at the university, could not immediately after graduation to enter higher education. Prerequisite is the adoption papersan internship. Typically, graduates must pass it within 6 months in the newspapers, on radio, television or in the structures of relations with the press and the public of the various organizations.
In order to practice has not prevented the beginning of training, a lot of institutions and journalism faculties of German universities begin trainingin the first year with the summer semester. In universities, training takes place on a specialty "Journalism" and "journalism and science communication." Graduates of the last areas receive a master's degree. As in Ukraine specialty "journalism and science communication" is unique, consider some of the features on the examplee one of the high schools.
Institute of Journalism and Communication Sciences at the Free University of Berlin
Institute of Journalism and Communication Sciences at the Free University of Berlin has over fifty years of experience in education. The university has a lot of attention is paid to the theoreticalcal underpinnings. Students can choose a profession "journalism and science communication" as the main or second parallel study. Most students study two majors. For example, "journalism" and "right" or "foreign languages" and "journalism".
Basic toURS basic educational process offered over four semesters. It includes educational activities and discipline:
- orientation classes, entry to the course, technology research, social research methods (data collection and processing, statistics, etc.);
- social media studies and communication processes;
- structure of mass communication, communication technology and media technology (basic structure of the media, economy politics and the right media, foundations and systematics tehniki communication);
- History and Theory of Communication (basic history of social communication, communication theory, the theory of signs and theory of culture);
- Journalism and Public rileyshinz.
Practical skills are fixed during practice.
After the basic course exams take place like Preddiplom (this step does not yet match the bachelor's degree). After receiving the intermediate results, students can continue their education further or spend one or more semesters at universities in other countries, which encouraged the university administration as well as future employers.
The main part of the training
The main part of the training usually lasts four semesters. Students have the opportunity to study in the general plan or specialization. It may be: journalism, public rileyshinz, social media studies and communicationtional processes, the system of mass media and communication culture.
After the main part of learning a lot of attention is paid to the preparation of the master's work. Unlike in Ukraine, one of the copies of each master's thesis or German students were enrolledflushes the library of the university. Interlibrary loan, this work can be ordered other students, scholars or trainees. To research paper is taken as seriously as other scientific works.
Practical Training (Voluntary work)
After a thorough theoretical training, graduatesUniversity to receive a diploma of higher education. However, having a diploma does not guarantee sufficient qualifications. That is why most media offer graduates receive additional practical training has on their industrial base.
This kind of practical education is called Volontariata. Several similar in-depth practical skills exist in Ukraine except that medical graduates.
For voluntary worker places a graduate must submit an application, documents on education and their own materials in his chosen media. Typically, the mainstream media have Correspondingly Germanysponding editorial departments where trainees engaged in a designated employee. In each edition there are a number of places, the competition for that depends on the popularity of publication. For example, the newspaper "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" offers every year only 6 seats. Number of people willing but significantly larger number of Bolee 200 people.
The head of the educational edition checks all submitted documents. Of the total number of elected 30 best candidates, who are then invited for an interview. The committee consists of 8 leading journalists and leaders of publication. Applicants are asked to provide a written response to a test that contains in 3035surveys of general education, vocational, social and political nature. Applicants also expect that they are knowledgeable in current events and viewed news reports over the past 46 weeks.
Then the trial participants should write some journalistic materials, to come up with successfule (funny, original or unexpected) Name of articles and perform other creative tasks. The authors of the best works of 12-13 are invited to the final interview that should determine who will be the trainee newspaper.
The new challenges are sometimes specific. "Look at the photo and name politicians or other izvesbearers of it. "" As used in the text decrypted common abbreviations? "
Some of the questions have already been standard for these interviews. For example:" What was the last book you read? "With regard to other issues, the Commission is sometimes not interested as right or wrong answer as the reaction of applicants. "In to thefirst you have interviewed and why? What would you ask? "Is taken into account, the candidate or long thinks he is able to quickly give a brief and clear answer. As a rule, the best 4-5 candidates are determined quickly. Sometimes it is more discussion on two more.
Selected young people will operate in a newspaper within 15 months from Octobervember and by the end of next year. Some media offer volunteer for 2 years.
The first three months occur basic theoretical and practical training in journalism and mass communication law. Then the trainees go to the departments and the newspaper. Everyone must follow the work of all the jetsKeturah and work in them for at least 1 month. However, this period of time depends on the interest of the trainee. From someone who is interested in the economy, but indifferent to the sport, no one take too long in the sports edition. In addition to structures in the newspaper office trainees also attend one of the correspondents, for example,Berlin.
The paper provides a workplace, paying social insurance and other statutory costs, etc. Also provides shelter, but to pay for it already paid by the trainee. To cover this and other expenses paid monthly edited fixed fee.
After the voluntary worker Most of the traineesto leave to work in the editorial, although sometimes also invite their competitors, especially in the the newly created edition. Only in the central edition "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" in Frankfurt has about 300 journalists. A significant number of them, ands an a doctorate.
For the printed span > additional materials fee is not charged. This also applies to interns and staffers. The fee is only available for freelance workers without which no cost, almost no revisionof the country.
According to the Institute of Journalism of the University of Muenster, almost a third of the 60 million German journalists working as a freelance. Load time corresponds to at least 51 hours a week. But despite this, svob-derivative journalists are constantly worried about further education and technical support, hoping for better times and demand. Third have already a good profit - their average salary is more than 5,000 German marks. 40 percent of independent journalists from the western lands receive less than 3,000 German marks. BBerlin in this situation are 60 per cent of journalists. The same sum of satisfied and in the eastern states of Germany two-thirds of independent journalists.
Commercial journalism school
In order to increase their own income, journalists and constantly improve the level ofeducation. Education at German universities is free, but most consider it too theoretical and long-term. Commercial journalism schools offer hands-on training faster - for 2-3 years, but the cost of training them is a few tens of thousands of German marks.
But evenUnder these conditions, competition in schools is more than 10 people in place. The fact that in the process of formation in such a school, and work can be found. Schools often created by renowned publishing houses, such as Axel Springer or Burda. The best candidates for their publications media guide looks together with administration of schools for training.
Additional theoretical education
Additional theoretical education reporters and has a special department of the Institute of Journalism and Communication Sciences at the Free University of Berlin.
For already workingJournalists offer a variety of short-term workshops journalism academy, for example, the Bavarian Academy of the press in Munich, the tenth anniversary of the partnership between Bavaria and Ukraine this academy took patronage over the project recently established Academy of Ukrainian Press, which will focus on western standards in trainingjournalists and press secretaries.
In Germany, as in other European countries, is gaining popularity in learning throughout their lives. This principle is known as the principle of the three "L" - "Lebenslan-ges Lernen", or "life long learning". During the meeting of European Ministers of Education in January 1996 were formulated three main reasons in favor of learning throughout life: it contributes to the spiritual enrichment of the human, is economic growth, maintain social relations.
Education throughout life involves the following skills:
- to be able to apply new knowledge in practice;
- to be able to ask questions and to justify them;
- to be able to manage yourself and others;
- to be able to efficiently use the information;
- to be sociable;
- to be able to work in a team;
- to be able to solve problems;
- be able to adapt and be flexible;
- understand the need to improve their own competence.
These principles are largely individual prerequisites for the development of human capital. Logical thinking, concentration ability, willingness and ability to learn, the elements of social competence are the basis of that expected from graduates, employers around the worlde.