The history of the diamond
a Diamond is more than just aesthetically beautiful mineral, it is permanent symbol of love, romance and dedication. The name of the stone comes from the Greek word adamas, which means invincible . In the modern world, this mineral is known as a diamond (it is nothing like a faceted diamond). By the way, you can see in the world.
the earliest diamonds were found in India in 4th century BC, although the youngest of these deposits were formed 900 million years ago. Most of these early stones were transported along the network of trade routes linking India and China, commonly known as the silk road. During their discovery, diamonds were valued for hardness and luster, and for their ability to refract light and engrave metal. Diamonds were worn as jewelry (diamonds), were used as cutting tools, served as talismans to protect against evil and was thought to have provided protection in battle. In the dark ages diamonds were also used as a medical aid, and they were believed to cure sickness and heal when hit in the wound.
Surprisingly, diamonds share some common characteristics with coal. Both consist of the most common substance on earth: carbon. What distinguishes diamonds from carbon is how are atoms of carbon and how the carbon is formed. Diamonds are created when carbon is subjected to extremely high pressures and temperatures found in the Earth's lithosphere, which is roughly includes 90-240V miles below the earth's surface.
Until the 18th century India was the only source of diamonds. When the Indian diamond mines were depleted, the search began for alternative sources. Although a small Deposit was found in Brazil in 1725, it was not enough to meet global demand.
In 1866, 15-year-old Erasmus Jacobs explored the banks of the Orange river when I came across the fact that, in his opinion, it was an ordinary pebble, but it turned out that this diamond weight of 21,25 carats. In 1871 on a small hill called Colesberg Spear was discovered giant field weighing 83,5 carats. This caused a rush of thousands of diamond miners in the region and led to the discovery of the first large-scale mining operations, which became known as the Kimberley. This newly discovered source of diamonds has significantly increased the world's supply of this mineral, which has led to a significant reduction in their cost. The elite no longer considered the diamond a rarity, and began to replace it with colored gemstones. Emeralds, rubies and sapphires became more popular choices for engagement rings among the upper class.
In 1880, Englishman Cecil John Rhodes established De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd to control the supply of diamonds. Although DeBeers has been successful in controlling the supply of diamonds the demand for the stone was weak. By 1919, diamonds were devalued by almost 50 %.
In 1947, DeBeers commissioned the services of leading advertising Agency N.W. Ayer, and was coined the slogan a diamond is forever . The premise of this large-scale marketing campaign was the suggestion that diamonds should be the only choice for engagement rings. DeBeers advertising campaign was extremely successful and contributed to the spread in our days the tradition of wedding rings with diamonds. In the modern market of jewelry more than 78% of engagement rings sold contain diamonds.
With the popularity of precious stone, many companies and organizations began campaigns to training jewellers and consumers what you need to pay attention to when choosing diamonds. As soon as jewelers experimented with ways to improve the visual appeal and presentation of a diamond, was adopted by the new cutting methods to help to increase the brilliance of the stone. Over time, several prominent shapes emerged as the most popular, including round, oval, Marquise, square (Princess), and rectangular (emerald).
Today the world's diamond reserves are gradually depleted. Less than 20 % of mined diamonds are of gem quality; less than 2% are considered investment diamonds . 75 80 % of mined diamonds are used for industrial applications, e.g. for grinding, sawing and drilling. As a rule, more than 250 tons of ore need to be extracted to get a stone weighing 1 carat.
Uncommon beauty and strength of diamond make it a suitable symbol of steadfastness and longevity of the marriage. In addition to the wedding rings diamonds are traditionally presented as a gift to commemorate the sixtieth anniversary. With their rich history sense of permanence, and lustrous brilliance, diamonds are a natural choice to signify a lasting Union.
Translated by "Yandex.Translate": translate.yandex.ru.