Development of schools in the North Caucasus
People educators Caucasus (MV Gardanov, A. Hasse, S. Khan Giray, NA Tsagov et al.) Are also actively advocated the fight against age-old ignorance and delay. In particular, advanced educational community Caucasus demanded the question of training newframes on scientific and practical basis and expanding the content of all teaching activities.
Caucasus in the 2nd half of the XIX century
In the beginning of 1860 in the Caucasus has been updated administrative staff, but all the disadvantages of its activity appeared fairly quickly, because the handsovoditeli standing of the chapter did not have, nor appropriate education much less understanding of the educational activities. Therefore, the problems started pretty quickly. The realization that we need new and radical changes have led to the fact that in December 1862 the governor of the North Caucasus has been appointed the brother of Emperor M.N. Romanov. In the Caucasus, created the office of inspector training institutions, which have appointed JM Neverova. Thanks to this man teaching career began to move forward. Its main proposal was to promote and develop the girls' schools. This, perhaps, was the first step in the development of Education in the NorthCaucasus.
As a result of the Caucasian Committee initiated the development of the circular, according to which education was to adapt to the characteristics of different regions of the Caucasus, on the basis of religion. Where lived the Muslim part of the population, education needed to be religious, and in regions where living sugubo Russian part of the population, left the traditional teaching methods.
The difference in requirements and lower secondary schools led to the fact that the applicants came from a completely different knowledge. So we had to create a whole range than not justified exemptions for weak students. But perhaps the most progressivem innovation was that the learning process and activities still has a fit to the local characteristics: so in areas where there were few students were allowed to not learn Greek, and replace it in law. But despite all the innovations, educational system has not yet assumed continuity, that is, after the first etapa education was not provided follow.
Caucasus in the 1st half of XX century
In the 1920-1934 biennium. North Caucasus region was a 7 independent autonomy, which were growing actively school stage 1, ie, primary schools. But what are thoseschool, what they were doing and how to build your educational process?
This is how in 1926, described the state of the national schools in the North Caucasus A. dostoyat article « National School as it is & raquo ;: « Ordinary natsmenovskaya School (NACI – from national and minority – a person relatedto any national minority, natsmenovskaya School – minority schools – approx. auth.) – it's not exactly cozy room without sufficient light and equipment, unprepared to work with children and require proper maintenance. School supplies are very old. Places at all lacking, and the desk&Nbsp; sit at 3-4 children, often lacking the chalk, and indeed the board as such. In winter, the children sit in a cold, unheated rooms, not to mention the fact that the building itself is located almost in the woods »
Students often missed school because simply did not have warm clothes and even shoes, children had nothing to go to class. But Dr.ohm children could not deal with, because most were not and textbooks and supplies, children did not speak Russian language.
greatly complicates the lack of employment opportunities and ways for them to get to school in the pouring rain. Due to work on the exercises began in the late autumn and ended in the spring of that offive as a very negative effect on the learning process, because the classes were held for 4-3 months, and the gap between them was just huge. Because of this shortcoming, it is clear that children do not have time to learn the program and graduate from school illiterate and completely unprepared. It should be noted that, for example, in USthe time duration of the learning process is not less than 200 days and was, importantly, enshrined in law, which is not allowed to break the 200-day training period. In the same schools Caucasian duration of training time ranged from 120 to 130 days.
Education in the north Caucasus School lasted 5years, but before the release came very few graduates, as Every year students are actively screened out. If we follow the statistics for the entire Caucasus region, only 11% of students were issued as a result of that, in my opinion, this was unacceptable.
What is the reason for such a poor performance? First of all, what trainingprocess had absolutely none of the bar, there was no training system, there was no timetable, no hint of its creation, training classes are not divided by age. Russian language was taught at a very low level, since many schools welcomed teaching in their native language, and it means something, infurther training at the highest levels in Russian schools becomes impossible. Soviet authorities often subsequently invited to study further distinguished disciples, but it often happened that on learning they do not stay long because of the language barrier. Things began to change in a positive way only in the early 1930syears.
Material provided personal SV Sidorova