Chess pieces: the Origin
"The earliest Indian chess pieces were called Shah (king), Wazir (counselor), Fili (Bishop), the speaker (knight), Rukh (rook) and pedom (pawn). The earliest Persian names were shah, farzin, pil, asp, rukh, and piyada. Countries of the Western world as close as possible translated the earliest names," says international grandmaster Alexander Evdokimov (by the way, chessportal.ru you can enroll in his online courses via Skype).
In July 2002 in Butrint, an ancient Mediterranean city in southern Albania, was discovered a piece of ivory smaller than 2 inches. Dates back to the year 465 ad. If it's really a chess piece, it is the oldest chess piece found anywhere in the world. It even changes the date chess. The part has a cross on top of it and was found in an old Byzantine or Roman Palace.
The earliest known chess pieces (chatrang) were found in Afrasiab, near Samarkand in Uzbekistan. Found seven items, consisting of a king, chariot, vizier, horse, elephant, and 2 soldiers. ivory. It dates to around the year 760 BC. A coin, dated 761 was found with the chess.
Mozarabic chess pieces, also known as the fragments of the Holy, Genadio, can be as old as the beginning of X century. Four small piece was made of ivory and preserved in Mosarabskoy monastery in Leon, Spain.
Chess pieces: European
the Oldest European chess players may be some Italian chess pieces made of bone with a wash of ivory. He was found in Venerato, Italy, and is dated around the year 980 ad. It is displayed in the archaeological Museum of Napoli. Parts were discovered in a Roman tomb in 1932. Disputes explain how it was possible to see that the chess pieces of Arabic shape were discovered in the tomb of the Roman century. Radiocarbon measurement gave a date from 885 to 1017 AD.
One of the earliest authentic European chess pieces are the chess pieces of the Isle of Lewis who are now in the British Museum and the National Museum of antiquaries in Edinburgh. Sixty-seven chess pieces, Isle of Lewis are in the British Musueum, the other 11 in the National Museum. Pieces from four different chess sets. Chess set Isle of Lewis, is the oldest known ecclesiastical Bishop.
chessmen Isle of Lewis, were found in March, 1831 in an underground chamber on the West coast of the Isle of Lewis (UIG Bay) on the Islands West of the Hebrides in Scotland. A local peasant, Calum Nan Sprot, who was looking for his cow, found a small chamber about 15 feet below the top of the sandy shore that was partly washed away. Chess pieces, perhaps made in 1150 by the Norse, were made of walrus ivory and were considered of Icelandic origin. The shepherd was frightened expressions on the pieces and fled from the scene. He told his Minister, Alexander McLeod, who returned to this sight and banished the land, and then sold the pieces (67 chess and 14 ordinary draughtsmen) to the British Museum for 84 British pounds.
Salamanca chess pieces
Another early chess set is the so - called chess pieces of Charlemagne, which are in the Cabinet in Medalie, the National library in Paris. It is a massive carving of ivory. Charlemage probably never played chess. The so-called chess pieces of Charlemagne was in the Abbey of St. Denis near Naples since the end of XIII century. The pieces date from about 1100 years and was probably made in Salerne, Italy. The pieces might have come to Paris as a gift to French king Philip II or Phillip III. Both the king stayed in Salerno. In 1598 it was 30 pieces. In 1794, after the French revolution, it was 16 pieces. The set consists of 2 kings, 2 kings, 4 elephants, 4 knights, 3 chariots and 1 foot soldier.
the Piece is part of a set Charlemange is the elephant of the king. It bears Arabic inscription (Kufric), which translates as made by Yusuf al-Bajilion . Its origin is India, and it may not even be a chess piece. The Eastern leader is the elephant surrounded by a number of horsemen, acting as supporters.
Londonskie chess pieces
One of the first examples of chess pieces came from John Calvert in 1790. The king and Queen had openwork crowns, the Bishop had a deep cleft mitre, and the rook was a tower on a pedestal. He created his game of chess from 1790 to 1841.
At the beginning of the 19th century the most common chess design was the chess pieces of St. George.
In early 1849 Nathaniel cook, the editor of Howard Staunton in the Illustrated London Times, has developed a chess Staunton at a time when the players refused to play with each other because of the difficulty in distinguishing the various chess pieces. The basic patterns to Staunton was the model of Lund, Merrifield, Calvert, Barleycorn, Selenius and St George. Cook used the symbols in its simple form. The king was crowned, the Queen was the crown, the Bishop had a miter, the Knight was a horse's head, the rook was a castle, and the pawn was a ball. Head of horses were based on the Elgin marbles. It was a design found on frishe of the Parthenon and brought to England by Tom Bruce, 7th Lord of Elgin, in 1806. Pawn was designed with square and compass Freemasons. Each character was supported on a smooth stem, rising from a heavy, wide base that gave stability. The design impressed John Jaques, leading wood Carver, that he immediately suggested making the pieces on a commercial basis.
Chess pieces Jaques
Jaques was a friend of the English chess master, Howard Staunton, who sanctioned the request that the design be called the Staunton chess network. John Jacques was also the son-in-law of Nathaniel cook. Jaques got the copyright of the design, registering the design in accordance with the Law on the decorative drawings of 1842 and began manufacturing the set in London. The wooden pieces were turned from ebony and boxwood and very balanced. Some sets of ivory were made from African ivory. The king sizes were 3.5 inches or 4.5 inches (for match or tournament). September 29, 1849, the audience was presented the first figures of the chess pieces of the Staunton's from Jacques.
Chess sets Jaques were and are the Gold standard for chess sets. Jaques will always keep its value and constantly brings the highest prices at auction. The latest creation of Jacques is a new player on the Millennium Staunton, modification of the design created by the firm in the beginning of the century. Form, Board presence and exquisite craftsmanship of Jaques chess sets from this period were re-selected and offered for the first time.
Translated by "Yandex.Translate": translate.yandex.ru.