Surgical is the leading method in the modern treatment of cancer. In medicine, there are three types of surgical treatment (surgeries).
Radical (final) operation. With this type of surgery the tumor is removed completely, and all the rules of oncology are followed. After radical surgery, if the patient addressed with the initial stage of cancer - chemo therapy, radiation therapy and other treatments are not required.
Temporary surgery (cytoreductive). At palliative intervention not the whole tumor is removed, as in the radical method, removed only its part for more effective treatment of radio therapy and chemo therapy.
Symptomatic (secondary) surgery. The tasks for such surgeries may be different, but the main is to relief the patient when complications of cancer.
The second method implies a the use of ionizing radiation. This method is called radiation therapy.
Radiation therapy (RT): begin to use only after confirmation of the diagnosis cytologically or histologically. This therapy is most often used together with chemo therapy and surgical methods, but happens - on its own. Ir radiation is carried out before surgery (pre-operative RT) and it can be held by short and long courses, and postoperative ir radiation is carried out when the doctors are not sure that the tumor is completely removed. Radiation therapy is also divided into two types: radical and palliative. Palliative RT is not aimed at the destruction of the tumor completely, unlike the radical its directed at decreasing of its size, simple slowdown of growth and biological activity. Example of such use is a temporary reduction of pain during ir radiation of metastases formed in the bones. RT is used remotely (the radiation source is located at a distance from the tumor), and contact (when the the radiation source is located directly near the tumor, contact with it). Contact radiation therapy can be applique (when the source is located on the surface of the body), intracavitary (by inserting a source of radiation directly into the organs (intestine, uterus)), interstitial ( tumor is neutralized by radioactive drugs, which are inserted in it).
Drug therapy: a self-contained method, but is often combined with radiation therapy and surgical intervention. It is mainly the use of drugs which completely inhibit the growth of tumors and occurs irreversible damage of cancer cells. Drug therapy is divided into hormone therapy, targeted therapy, immuno therapy and chemo therapy.
Immuno therapy is very rarely combined with other methods and is not often used, as an independent method only for kidney cancer and melanoma.
Hormone therapy unlike immuno therapy is combined with the most other treatment methods. Here to combat the tumor are used hormones.
Targeted therapy is a relatively new tool, its low toxic and affects only the cancer cells receptors. Due to this, the growth of tumor is blocked, and it has no impact on normal cells.
Chemo therapy - this is the use of chemical drugs for cancer treatment. Can be used as one chemo drug (mono therapy), as it can be combined with other drugs. Chemo therapy is often used together with the surgical method. On preoperative therapy trying to reduce tumor, ease operative intervention. On postoperative therapy destroy cells, which could dissipate after the operation, its applied after radical surgery. This greatly improves the progress of treatment.
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