Origin of English
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The Anglo-Saxon settlement
It is always difficult to determine exactly when there was this or that speech, but in the case of English, we can at least with certainty that it existed as a phenomenonbefore the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons.
The tribes of Angles, Saxons and Jutes crossed the North Sea from North Germany and Denmark and settled in the UK. As historians write: "English arrived in the UK at the end of the sword".
We know little about the language situation in this period, as there is not much written archives Thuin Germanic languages ??of the north - western Europe.
Also, few tangible traces of Celtic language in modern English. Some scientists believe that Celtic speech, perhaps influenced the development of the basic grammar of the English language, especially in some parts of the country, but this is only speculation. The number of loan words, whenmarching from the Old English from this source is very small. Surviving in the modern English language including "brock" (badger) and "coomb" type Valley. Celts preserved their language in some parts of England, but they did not add a lot of words to the dictionary. Those used now, are mainly place names: the names of regions, cities and rivers. The Celts hadnumber of similar words, the name of the river, such as: Exe, ESC, Usk. All of them come from the word meaning water (Uisge). Initially, Old English had different groups of dialects, reflecting the different origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England. One of these dialects, Late West Saxon, eventually became dominant. Old English DGrigorievich does not sound or look like today. .
The Scandinavian settlements
The next invaders were the Normans. From the middle of the IX century a large number of Norman invaders settled in Britain, particularly in the northern and eastern regions, and in the XI century the whole of England was ruled by the Danish King KAnata. Various North - Germanic Languages ??Normans had a huge impact on English, it can be seen in the words that English has borrowed from this source. They include the most basic words such as take and even grammatical words such as they are.
The joint German base in both languagesshows the similarities between Old English and the language of the invaders. Some words, such as the date, indicates a kind of hybridization with some spellings, takes us back far into Old English, while others are of Scandinavian origin. These similarities between the two languages ??are so great that in many cases it is impossible to be sure of accurateom the origin of a word or spelling. However, the enormous influence of Scandinavian dialects, including a large number of loan words are not written in English, until the next great historical and cultural upheaval, the Norman Conquest.