Do you know that on our planet specialists comprise about 150 million species of animals and plants, of which has already been studied all-nothing - 1.5 million. And many of the rest species have not the opportunity to be studied, because, sadly, every day extinct an average about 100 species of flora and fauna.
As is known, algae and higher plants exist longer than others different plant species on the planet. The oldest is the so-called whelk. It is believed that the detected fossil, which is belonging to the Bang genus, is about 1.2 billion years. Among the higher plants the most ancient are ferns and horsetails, which grow a 350 million years ago. It is interesting that then their sizes were huge, and over time the biomass of these species of flora turned into coal, an extremely significant for us now fossil.
In our time California juniper tree previously considered the oldest of all living on Earth trees, it branches reach a height of 30 meters, it crown is 20 meters in girth, and it's already living about six thousand years. But it turned, that discovered in Sweden in 2008 ate has already eight thousand years.
On the other hand, in the rating of trees which are living in our area less than other, wins Birch (about 100 years), followed by Acer platanoides (Norway maple), wich is living about 150 years.
Age of the tree is determined by growth rings, which can be seen on the freshly felled trunk. Two rings, one light, the other dark, correspond to one year of life of the tree. If we talk about the growth rate of trees, it is quite impressive: each year the trees of our forests go up to about 40 cm and it is going up to 50 years of life, after which growth slows down, the crown and trunk of the tree grow in breadth.
The roots of the plants which are living in deserts, penetrate deep into the 20 meters. "Second place" in this aspect take the roots of grapevine that can reach a depth of 16 meters. In our forest trees "launch" their roots only for 5-10 meters in depth.
In spring, when the leaves are formed and grow, the average tree needs about 500 liters of water daily. Through the root system of the water rises through the vessels of plants to each leaf. It's interesting, that at night and during winter the water and dissolved nutrients move in the opposite direction, from the branches to the roots.
Scientists have discovered an interesting fact. It turns out that when the tree starts to dry, it "screams" in the range of 50-500 kHz. Naturally, man can not hear such a "plea for water", but it is a signal to bark beetles, which "finishes" a dying tree.
Some plants, which are called predators are able to "eat" other organisms. Most of the victims are small insects. Thus, plants predators fill a lack of minerals, because they live in poor soils. It is known about 450 species of carnivorous plants, their largest concentration is located on the south-west of Australia. Most plants predators catch their victim, using the sticky substances and other contrivances, and then digest the prey with the help of enzymes.