Permanent approach to agriculture
the world's Population is increasing every year and requires more and more food. Large and small farms around the world annually, expand the area to be treated, using more chemical fertilizers and chemicals to increase the yield. This inevitably leads to the depletion of the earth, its fertile globe, and the use of modified crops affects the health and condition of the nation. All this leads to new, gentler farming methods such as . What is it and what are its basic principles let's try to get on.the
Existing methods of cultivation of the soil
If to analyze the state of modern agriculture, its structure can be divided into two main areas:
- Industrial. Applicable to large agricultural corporations. For this direction characterized by the use of different artificial fertilizers, pesticides protective, modified by regulators of plant development and seed. For processing huge arable land is widely used different techniques. This approach is quite destructive to the ecosystem of the planet in General and land in particular. Permanent pollution of aquifers, deforestation, reduction of natural areas of wildlife habitat in the long term, lead to the fact that in 5-10 years half of ornago lands will come in unsuitability;
- Organic. This is the conventional approach to crop production which is actively used crop rotation, natural fertilizers (e.g., manure) instead of chemicals. All anything, but this method is more labor intensive, and the yield per square meter of space sometimes by half lower compared with the industrial method. This naturally leads to higher prices for finished products.
the first And the second way, in principle, the ecosystem in its pristine state, violate its diversity. From the point of view of the relationship with nature, they are a struggle and not a kind of harmonious cooperation, which is inherent to all plants on the planet. A fundamentally different approach to the issue worked out in the third, less common for permaculture.the
What is permaculture?
This is a complex concept, including systemic issues of agricultural work and the theory of landscape design the space that surrounds the person.
In the ideology of permanent agriculture it is considered that a specific plot you need to create certain diversity in the likeness of natural ecosystems. In other words, you need to create the most close to natural conditions for the growth of different types that in aggregate will allow to develop harmoniously each of them. Thus, the required yield without the use of harmful chemicals and heavy are not always reasonable physical labor.
Landscape design is mentioned not in the sense that you need to pay attention to creating a beautiful lawn with pebbles, flowers and waterfalls. This, of course, nobody forbids to make, but in the garden have to do the same job. Have to move away from rectilinear plots on which grow certain crops, and to try to combine them together, as it occurred in nature.the
the Principles of permaculture
the Course started to develop from the second half of the twentieth century thanks to the efforts of Australians Mollison and Holmgren, Japanese Fukuoka and Holzer the Austrian of. Are the founders of permaculture, and ger Holzer is considered its Patriarch. In their works we can trace and formulate the basic principles of this course:the
- Comprehensively the interaction of separate components of ecosystems;
- Each plant, the element must perform multiple functions;
- renewable energy
- the Use of natural rather than synthetic resources;
- the Most effective use of space;
- the Implementation of the theory of cycles and border areas;
- Creating diversity on the allotted plot.
Nature this is a perfect, a perfect mechanism that doesn't need to change, to fight with him. For the most effective farming you need to observe the natural ecosystem and to use its experience in practice.
Translated by "Yandex.Translate": translate.yandex.ru.